“El Nombre” de Griselda Gambaro. Public. · Hosted by Pulsiòn de Vida. Interested. clock. Friday, June 12, at PM – PM UTC More than a. “Monólogo acentua o drama da solidão. Sharon D. “Authoring the Scene, Playing the Role: Mothers and Daughters in Griselda Gambaro’s La malasangre. Slide 10 of 16 of DOS MONÓLOGOS DE LA GAMBARO.

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Directed by Margit Edwards.

A headstrong girl struggles to survive in her grandmother’s world in Guyana as she waits monolovos a visa to join her parents in America. Directed by Jack Wernick, asst dirJohn Buckingham. Produced by Joseph Leone. Directed by Jim Jaworski.

Roy Arias Theaters: Theater Online

For the savagepoet, when straight sex isn’t enough and successfulwomen endure! Certainthings are meant to change, even if the world isending. Whathappens when a hypochondriac comic monolofos nerd and abeautiful young doctor meet? Love, of course,because this is a play, not reality.

Starring Justine Hall andBradley Custer. He came there looking for prey,but he became the prey. Three high schoolfriends go a little bit crazy at auditions fortheir spring musical. Exploreswhat happens when a Writer, Actor, and Dancerstart and end a perfect revolution. Directed by Stephanie Karol. Directed by Javier E. Can a brother andsister save each other from their past? Sometimes seeking companionship takes onextreme measures. Directed by Christen Omantra Callahan.

Starring Cathryn Lynne and Errol Greaves. A fast paced rollercoaster about reinvention, self-discovery and being in grisleda for anyone who ever wanted to inspire, be inspired or believe that in spite of everything the most important battles to win are still the small ones.

The play is directed by Mr. Just before his works are celebrated at an exhibition in London, Jonathan journeys to the village where his former lover, Patricia, lives with her British husband, Nick. Archeologists working on a dig, their spare existence is spent sifting through a Roman rubbish heap to discover the past.

The subsequent struggle for the painting embodies the unreconciled passions of the past. Patricia has never forgiven Jonathan for leaving her, Nick despises Jonathan and the kind of art he produces and Jonathan has never been able to recapture the inspiration and purity he felt when he painted Patricia.

In taut scenes that dart from past to present and back, the characters are forced to deal with the unanswerable question of anti-Semitism, the legacy of the Holocaust and assimilation, the sadness of monologgos love, the griselds of the artist and the location of the human soul at the end of the ragged century.

Carol Ferrone, tells the story of two very different planets: It will be up to two rebellious young people to extract their planets from ensuing war, finding love in the process. Although set in a far-off solar system, the play was inspired by President Eisenhower’s farewell address to congress wherein he warned against the “acquisition of unwarranted influence The theatre precinct is wheelchair accessible. This show addresses issues such as: People with terminal illness, homosexuality,domestic violence,sexual discrimination, people with disabilities, prostitution,abortion and gender roles in foreign countries.

So Get your tickets NOW!!! This play has a strong Breast Cancer awareness message. John Chatterton created the MITF ina Midtown alternative to other theatre festivals, as a way to present the finest off-off Broadway talent in convenience, comfort, and safety. We learn to share.

Faculty Publications by Department: Modern & Classical Languages & Cultures

Play Waiting For Dr. Chisholm, directed by Cece S. Augustus; starring Reginald L. Admission is FREE but reservations are required: Each reading will be followed by a reception and a “Dollars and Sense” panel with top industry professionals — commercial producers, general managers and artistic directors – who will discuss the further development of the show that is read.

December 5, at 7pm – Oklahomo by Jesse Gage. Directed by Mark Robinson. Musical Direction by Doug Oberhamer. Presented by Reed Ridgley. Oklahomo is a rocking musical about Dave and Gary, two oversized men in undersized spandex fighting for their right to love and live. It is a timeless underdog tale that tackles issues of gay rights and discrimination, and also has crotch blasting love rays, singing vaginas, a Jesus look-a-like and Rupaul.

With its outrageous and hilarious book, and one of the most refreshing scores in ages, Oklahomo is sure to please as many as it offends.

Musical Direction by Seth Weinstein. Immersed in a shady world run by a crooked LAPD, despotic movie moguls, and untouchable politicians puppeteering every move leading one of the girls to fame and leaving the other girl with a crimson smile, this original musical merges a contemporary score with the film noir world to create a unique look at friendship, love, ambition and the corruption of innocent dreams.

Together, the writers have collaborated on four musicals prior to Famous. Directed by David Lee Vroom, Gem! Musical direction by Stuart McMeans. Presented by Kenny Howard. Charlotte and Lenny love each other. But lately it seems like their lives have been on different paths. The writers, one in Chicago and one in England, wrote this entire musical via Skype and email, and subsequent development took place in England.

This will be the first time Through the Door will be presented in the United States. If you like music you will love this show! The Orlando Sentinel wrote, “It’s just one guy – and one guitar – but it’s amazing!

The hour-long play will leave you doing two things: Chase Padgett grkselda a tour de force performance as he becomes 6 different guitar players each with their own voice, views and music while also playing standard and original songs in the styles of Blues, Jazz, Rock, Classical, Folk and Country.

The show takes the audience along each character’s first introduction to the music they love, the lessons they’ve learned through music along the way and finally what the true importance of music really is to us all.

Denise Jones, A professional African-American woman, raising her four grandchildren did not have time to think about dating and she sure did not have the time to actually date. Her days were full taking care of her business needs as well as the needs of her grandchildren. Denise struggled to get to that place that the God intended, but she did not want to face the hurt that lingered within.

When she was nearing a breakthrough she felt a lump in her breast. What more can happen to keep her from getting to that special place in life? By the urging of her friend she decided to visit a therapist. She needed a listening ear in order to share her family struggles and to let go of the pain.

It is a story of LOVE! And in the morning: As part of the Civic Theatre Initiative, half of all profits benefit the work of the World Cares Center, providing disaster relief and readiness training to all. For more information visit www. Altruistic Theatre Company creates art that provides a guiding voice, one that is meaningful as well as entertaining. We maintain a nurturing environment for artists, to produce and develop new works of theatre.

We foster good in our community, not only discussing social issues but actively working off-stage to promote social change. Reginald Edmund is a southern playwright who creates within the world of urban mythology, tracing it from its African roots to its contemporary form in America.

Measure for Measure, American Bard Theater Company’s second full length production is a dark comedy that examines justice and mercy in a city saturated with moral decline and government corruption.

Directed by Natalie Doyle Holmes. In Measure for Measure, the Bard weaves a tale of power, sex, morality and personal demons that concludes in three weddings and no funerals.

Often dubbed a problem play because tragic results loom large, Shakespeare uses disguise, buffoonery and mercy measured against overzealous judgment, treachery and lust to bring this complex story to a happy yet ironic ending.

The director, Natalie Doyle Holmes, explains, “My goal is to help the ensemble take this play, traditionally performed as a heavy drama, and showcase it as the dangerous comedy it truly is.

We will be working together to explore the shades of gray in all humans”. This production of Measure for Measure allows American Bard Theater Company to bring their talents to serve the play and entertain the audience.

Sparks Grassly along with Janine R. Diversity Players of Harlem, strive to ensure education and enlightenment opportunities through diverse forms of artistic and creative medium. It is our ultimate goal to nurture youth of undiscovered talents, and produce platforms for artists of various backgrounds.

“El Nombre” de Griselda Gambaro

Furthermore, we believe that effectively meeting our goal will cure some of the societal ills affecting our communities. On Thursday, September 16 th at 8: On the eve of the Cairo Peace Conference, a lonely American heiress becomes the confidant of diplomats and the target of the attentions of a possible German spy.

Jessica Ammirati has directed over 15 productions, mostly original works, off-off Broadway, including 2 productions on Theatre Row. Jessica is the founder of Going to Tahiti Productions, monlogos theater company dedicated to furthering the female voice and female opportunities in theater.

For information and tickets, visit www. Shelly and Kaden are a married couple and owners of a match making business, yet they can barely keep their relationship together. Renata and May- May, a pair of thieves burst into their lives, turning their business upside down. The play confronts our current ultra-technological society, and how it affects relationships. This short play is a fast paced, quirky drama-comedy that will keep you wanting more.

Jonathan Waxman is a superstar artist, plunged into the exorbitant hype of the American art world where a publicist is as necessary as a brush and canvas.


Background: Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson. Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD). Items 9 – 14 breviated version of the AES, known as the Apathy Scale. Copyright © SciRes. .. [6] Starkstein, S.E. and Leentjens, A.F.G. () The noso-.

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Apathy is currently defined as diminished motivation as expressed in poor goal-oriented behaviours and cognitions. A structured clinical interview and a specific set of diagnostic criteria to diagnose apathy in dementia have been recently validated. There are several valid and reliable scales to measure the severity of apathy in adults with neuropsychiatric disorders. Among patients with Alzheimer’s disease, apathy is significantly associated with older age, the presence of depression, and more severe cognitive and functional deficits, and also predicts a faster cognitive and functional decline.

The mechanism of apathy in neuropsychiatric disorders is still unknown, but several studies suggest an important role for frontal lobe and basal ganglia dysfunction.

There are no specific randomized controlled trials of psychoactive compounds to treat apathy in neuropsychiatric disorders. Evidence from case reports and small case series suggest the usefulness of psychostimulants to treat apathy in traumatic brain injury, whereas pharmacological trials for behavioural and psychological problems in dementia suggest that anticholinesterases may have some efficacy.

Dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, Geriatric Psychiatry, Apathy. Introduction Diminished motivation is one of the most frequent behavioural changes among patients with neuropsychiatric disorders.

Apathy is most frequently associated with depression and severe dementia. AD patients with apathy are more impaired in basic activities of daily living and their caregivers report significantly higher levels of distress as compared to AD patients without apathy Landes et al.

In spite of the strong negative impact of apathy in AD, treatment studies for this frequent behavioural condition are surprisingly few. Our group and others have also reported a relatively high frequency of apathy among patients with stroke lesions, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease Burns et al. Nevertheless, the frequency of apathy is highest among individuals with dementia, and the present review will mainly focus on the frequency and clinical correlates of apathy in AD.

We will briefly discuss the neurobiological basis of apathy, and also review pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment modalities. Diagnosis of Apathy Marin defined apathy as the absence or lack of feeling, emotion, interest or motivation Marin Starkstein Starkstein standardized Marin’s construct into a set of criteria based on the presence of diminished goal-directed behaviour, diminished goal-directed cognition, and diminished concomitants of goal-directed behaviour Table I.

These diagnostic criteria have been validated for patients with Alzheimer’s disease, but their validity in other neuropsychiatric conditions remains to be established. One of the main diagnostic dilemmas is how to separate apathy from depression.

Marin Marin et al. Several studies from our group demonstrated that apathy is a common feature of depression among individuals with or without AD, although apathy and depression may also occur independently of each other Starkstein et al.

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Several instruments are now available to rate the severity of apathy. Marin and coworkers were the first to validate the Apathy Evaluation Scale for use with patients with stroke, Parkinson’s disease, or Alzheimer’s disease Marin et al.

This instrument consists of 18 items that can be administered as a self-rated scale, as a caregiver scale, or as a clinician administered test. Starkstein and coworkers developed a item Apathy Scale Table IIwhich is an abridged and slightly modified version of Marin’s instrument Starkstein et al. The Apathy Scale was validated for use in stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. Cummings developed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory as a multidimensional starketein administered to an informant Cummings This assessment includes a specific module to measure apathy, which consists of stxrkstein items that are rated as present or absent.

Apatyh on the apathy module provide a measure of the frequency and severity of apathy, as well as caregiver distress. Roberts and coworkers designed the Apathy Inventory based on the format of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Starksteinn et al.

The Apathy Inventory also scalf separate assessments for the symptoms of emotional blunting, lack of initiative, and loss of interest. We have recently published the validity and reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for Apathy Starkstein et al. This instrument includes questions assessing the domains of lack of motivation relative to the individual’s previous level of functioning, lack of effort to perform every day activities, dependency on others to structure activities, lack of interest in learning new things or in new experiences, lack of concern about one’s personal problems, unchanging or flat affect, and lack apahhy emotional response to positive or negative personal events.

Based on answers to specific questions, symptoms are scored as either absent, subclinical, or definitely present.

This is, to our knowledge, the only standardized instrument to assess the presence of symptoms of apathy using a semi-structured format.

In conclusion, whilst apathy is one of the most frequent behavioural changes in neuropsychiatric disorders, its clinical assessment is still problematic. Diagnostic criteria for apathy have been validated for Alzheimer’s disease only. There is a variety of scales that are both valid and reliable to rate the severity of apathy, but these instruments are also used to diagnose apathy based on cut-off scores.

This procedure may result in apathy groups with different syndromic clusters. There is also a structured clinical interview for apathy, but its validity and reliability has been established for patients with dementia only. We examined the frequency of apathy in a study that included a consecutive series of patients with probable AD Starkstein et al.

Scores on this item are 0: Patients with scores of 2 or higher were considered apathetic. Based on this diagnostic scheme, 46 of the patients with Alzheimer’s disease had apathy. In the next study we diagnosed apathy based on the diagnostic criteria described in Table 1 Starkstein et al. Clinical information syarkstein obtained from caregivers, who filled the Apathy Scale about the patient. Briefly, apathy was diagnosed whenever patients had 1 Poor or no motivation as rated with item 7 on the Apathy Scale2 Poor or no interests as rated with items 1 and 2 or effort as rated with items 4 and 9and 3 Feelings of indifference or lack of emotions most or all of the time as rated with items 10 and About two thirds of the AD patients with apathy were also depressed either major or minor depression.

Apathy was diagnosed stqrkstein the diagnostic criteria listed in Table I Starkstein et al. Csale of these 29 patients also had major depression, 5 patients had minor depression, and 11 patients were not depressed. Taken together, our findings suggest that the frequency of apathy in AD is lower when assessed with a structured interview and diagnosed with standardized criteria as compared to using arbitrary cut-off points on a severity rating scale.

In a study that included patients with AD, Landes and coworkers diagnosed apathy based on a cut-off score on the Dementia Apathy Interview and Rating Landes et al. First, apathy has been diagnosed using a variety of rating instruments and different strategies.

Second, the source of patients varied widely, from patients living in the community to xcale admitted to specialized dementia units. Finally, those studies that included patients with relatively more severe dementia showed a higher frequency of apathy than studies that included patients with milder dementia.

Clinical correlates and course of apathy in AD Most studies on apathy in AD have been cross-sectional, and all of them demonstrated a significant association between more severe apathy and more severe dementia. In a recent study we assessed the longitudinal evolution of apathy in a consecutive series of patients with probable AD attending a memory clinic Starkstein et al.

SAS – Starkstein Apathy Scale

Apathy was assessed with the Apathy Scale and diagnosed using the diagnostic criteria shown in Table Starkkstein. Patients with apathy were significantly sfale, had more severe cognitive deficits and more severe impairments in activities of daily living than patients without apathy. To examine whether apathy should be considered a mere symptom of depression in dementia, we first examined whether the onset of depression during the follow-up period was associated with increasing apathy.

The results showed a significant overall increment in apathy scores during the follow-up period, but there was no depression by apathy interaction i. These findings suggest that apathy in Alzheimer’s disease should not be considered as a symptom of severe depression only.

We next examined whether apathy at baseline may predict more severe depression at follow-up. We found a significantly greater increase in depression scores during the follow-up period for patients with apathy as compared to those without apathy, suggesting that apathy is a significant predictor of depression in AD.

Finally, we also found that patients with apathy at baseline or those that developed apathy during the follow-up period had a faster cognitive and functional decline than patients with no apathy at baseline or at follow-up. In conclusion, apathy in Alzheimer’s disease is associated with older age, more severe deficits in activities of daily living, and a faster progression of cognitive and functional impairments.

In cross-sectional studies apathy was found to be significantly associated with depression, whereas in longitudinal studies apathy was found to be a significant predictor of more severe depression.

Mechanism of apathy in AD The current view on the mechanism of apathy in neurological disorders is mostly mechanistic: In a recent review, Habib summarized the main clinical features of apathy which he termed “athymormia” after brain damage, and stressed the over-representation of basal ganglia lesions among these patients. Recent studies emphasized the potential importance of parallel and segregated cortico-subcortical loops originating from and terminating in the frontal lobes for the mechanism of neuropsychiatric disorders Cummings One of these circuits originates in the anterior cingulate cortex, connects with the ventral globus pallidus and the scaale thalamus, and projects back to the anterior cingulate.

Habib speculated that this cingulate circuit may mediate “the process of converting motivation into action”, and that apathy may result from the bilateral disruption at different levels of this circuit or from lesions in svale areas outside the striato-pallidal complex.

This would explain why some patients with orbito-frontal lesions who mostly show disinhibited behaviours, also feature a concomitant loss of motivation. Habib concluded that “athymormia” is the result of a striatal-limbic disconnection syndrome characterized by deficits converting past or present emotional experience into action. Habib’s proposal is certainly interesting and fits nicely etarkstein the current model of segregated basal ganglia-frontal lobe loops for the modulation of behaviour.

However, Habib’s model partially rests on the dubious assumption that action is causally dependent on motivation.


The problem with this hypothesis dcale how to avoid the Cartesian dilemma of psychological states motivation and past or present emotional experiences producing a physical state action.

They staarkstein suggested that apathy may result from the disruption of prefrontal cortex-basal ganglia circuits, considered to play a critical role in the generation and control of self-generated purposeful behaviour.

They hypothesized that disruption of an “emotional-affective” process may produce apathy due to the inability to associate affective and emotional signals with overt behaviour; disruption of the “cognitive” process may result from impairments on cognitive functions that are “needed to elaborate the plan of actions”; whereas the “auto-activation deficit” may result from “difficulties in activating thoughts or initiating the motor program necessary to complete the behaviour”.

They suggest that apathy may result from a faulty elaboration of “plans apxthy action” and from the disruption of “activating thoughts” in the initiation of motor programs, which are both psychological concepts. Finally, whereas a strong association between apathy and cognitive impairments has been consistently demonstrated, it is uncertain whether apathy may result from deficits restricted to apatgy functions.

In conclusion, current theories explain apathy as the behavioural expression of the disruption of cognitive modules that deal with the organization of human action, apatthy and motivation.

These modules are considered to engage independent frontal-subcortical circuits. Future studies are needed to clarify the association between apathy and lesions in specific brain areas, as well as the role of executive dysfunction in the mechanism of apathy. Treatment of apathy There are few randomized controlled trials of pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatments for apathy in AD.

Politis and coworkers Politis apath al. The control treatment consisted on one-to-one meetings with an activity therapist. The authors found a significant apaghy on apathy measures over the course of the study, but there were no significant differences between the treatment groups on any of the outcome measures. Lee and coworkers Lee et al. However, the magnitude and temporal course of their therapeutic effect is still controversial Whyte et al. A recent double blind, placebo controlled study evaluated the effects of methylphenidate on diverse cognitive functions in a group of 24 patients who had moderate to severe head injuries Whyte et al.

Finally, there is some empirical evidence that cholinesterase inhibitors such starksyein donepezil may improve cognitive functioning, motivation and general well being of patients with traumatic brain injury Arciniegas et al. In a study that included men with Parkinson’s disease Ready and coworkers Ready et al. The authors suggested that testosterone replacement therapy may constitute a helpful treatment of apathy for these patients.

Several treatment studies suggested that anticholinesterase compounds may improve apathy among patients with dementia. In a recent study, Cummings and coworkers Cummings et al. After 26 weeks of treatment there was a significant improvement of apathy, as measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. It is important to stress that apatby effect of rivastigmine was not specific for apathy, since improvements were also noticed on other starkstdin disturbances.

Furthermore, changes on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory were rather small and may not have been clinically relevant.


Mi Hermana Elba y Los Altillos de Brumal by Cristina Fernández Cubas, , available at Book Depository with free delivery. : Mi hermana Elba y los altillos de Brumal (Spanish Edition) ( Colleccion Andanzas) (): Cristina Fernandez Cubas: Books. Mi Hermana Elba y Los Altillos De Brumal [Cristina Fernandez Cubas] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

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Publica un comentari a l’entrada. Andreu, an year-old country boy, witnesses a horrifying murder. When the authorities suspect his father, and his family becomes threatened by local politics, Andreu escapes into a fantasy world based on the supernatural folk tales of the surrounding hills and forests. Eventually Andreu realises he must leave his fantasy world to track down the real killer and betray his own roots to survive.

We got this covered. The film focuses on a ten year old by the name of Andreu who is just old enough to begin understanding the complex world going on around him. And it is very complex. A cloaked figure murders a man and his son by leading their carriage off a cliff. As Andreu attempts to exonerate his father, he finds much more in the world surrounds him than he wants to know.

One complaint I had was that the film is unashamedly created for mainstream audiences. Still, there are some things of genuine worth here. His leading cast wields some genuinely lovely moments out of the unruly script. As well as some genuinely disturbing ones. A man is attacked in the Catalan woods, brutally murdered by a cloaked assailant; his son, in the back of their horse-drawn wagon, is driven over a cliff and left to die.

Found by his friend Andreu a terrific Francesc Colomerthe boy breathes out the name of a ghost in his final moments: Was his death some sort of revenge, a score settling? In the eyes of the police, the victors, Farriol must be guilty. His only hope is to flee over the mountains and into the relative safety of France, a route many men, lucky enough to escape the purge of the reds, have already taken. Andreu is sent away to live with his grandmother, who is a caretaker for a wealthy family headed by an overbearing matriarch, who will later hold the fates of Farriol and Andreu in her hands.

Although the adults pretend that her father also escaped to France, she knows the much more disturbing truth. And, in some ways, the children are right: But the biggest mystery that Andreu has to solve is how the ghost of a man who is said to haunt the woods, cursed ever since the war, could be involved in the death of his young friend.

The truth is that a conflict of that horror and magnitude provides cover for a multitude of sins. The clergy, on the side of the fascists, sit in judgement on their parishioners, even controlling what they eat – allowing those unfortunates on the losing side only coarse, black bread as some kind of twisted punishment.

That the film takes the perspective of a child Andreu is in every scene and where he is not directly part of the action the viewer is nonetheless aware of him as an observer of the world of adults: As with those films, the child protagonist comes from a family that was on the losing side of the Civil War.

Despite the arguable lack of emphasis on the period, the film is nonetheless rooted in a specific place from the very first sequence, one of the most brutal film openings I have seen for quite some time. But the opening of the film in which we see a father and son murdered, and Andreu’s discovery of their bodies and its use of landscape and location are the first indication of how closed and isolated this community is, and also of the otherworldliness that permeates the film.

Central to this otherworldliness is the forest, which is revealed as a place of enchantment and refuge, but also of intense fear. I may revisit the film on the blog in the future when more people will hopefully have seen it, and also when I have got into a better rhythm with my writing this feels a bit clunky to me. In the meantime I will just say that having seen the film, the Goya triumph is completely understandable. I will certainly keep an eye out for her appearances in the future —every emotion that her character feels is etched upon her face in what is a heartbreaking performance and it is largely due to her performance that the last line of the film is so devastating.

The setting is a forest. A boy and a man make their way uneasily through this rough terrain in horse and carriage.

A hooded hipotsnusa emerges out of the trees and kills the man with wl enormous rock, while the little boy watches, hidden in the canopy of the wagon, too scared to make a sound. A beat later the killer will take the dead man, the boy, the horse and carriage and send the lot over a cliff. This episode has the feel of a nightmare, and not only because of the mysterious figure of the hooded killer.

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Set in in the countryside around Barcelona, the narrative takes place in a Spain that has only recently come out of a civil war, with the Fascists victors. In his new home Andreu is awakened to sex and politics and the lies that adults must tell so they can learn to live themselves and their past.

Still, it sets a mood and a tone of unease that never abates. Grim but gripping tale of a rural lad’s first exposure to evil in Spain’s post-Civil War years. Set inthe film opens with its most visually startling scene, its brutality setting the tone for what follows. The issue of whodunit quickly becomes secondary.

El Crimen De LA Hipotenusa (Spanish, Paperback)

Farriol escapes to France, while Andreu is sent by Florencia to live with his grandmother Elisa Crehuetin a house full of women; the men are all either dead or exiled. Bipotenusa the women do their wl to cope, the war has caused the men to regress to their most basic instincts: The local schoolteacher Eduard Fernandez, brilliantly eliciting both compassion and repulsion is an alcoholic who is sleeping with Nuria.

Farriol, despite his repeated speeches to Andreu about maintaining ideals, is an ambiguous figure at best. It all adds up to a harrowing portrait of a war and a regime that have taken a toll on victors and vanquished alike, as well as their children. As a depiction of rural poverty, pic is impressive: The darkly lit, richly textured interiors seem to be an extension of the beautifully lensed natural landscape, with a palette that switches from natural brown tones during the day to harsh blue hues at night.

Several scenes, including a dream sequence, are shot through with a raw, unsettling power.

But what really distinguishes the film stylistically is the al of the often handheld lensing, more redolent of a gritty urban drama than of a rural period piece. Even the closest relationship in the film, between Andreu and Farriol, is always troubled. Perfs are uniformly fine from a Catalan cast whose biggest names, including Laia Marull as Pauleta, the deranged wife of the man murdered in the first scene, are relegated to the smaller roles.

These questions mostly center on Andreu, and Colomer carries the emotional weight superbly, especially in a wonderfully understated final moment.

Novembernacht, ER B

Stodgy, starchy and not particularly nutritious, “Black Bread” is the latest in a very long line of films to examine the harmful effects of war and its aftermath upon innocent children.

Adapted from a well-regarded literary novel, the mainstream-oriented picture tries to cram too much incident and symbolism into its two-hour running-time. Nevertheless, the Spanish has a hipotenuas domestic box office prospects given the subject matter, the familiarity of the source material and the starry cast.

Main focus is on bright Andreu Francesc Colomeraged around 10, whose family are implicated in the ongoing conflict between the government forces of General Franco, successful in the recently-concluded Spanish Civil Hi;otenusa, and those who oppose or resist the victorious nationalists. In an atmosphere of tension and suspicion, the children of the area channel their fears into folk-tales of supernatural forces in the surrounding hills and forests.

He even casts the latter movie’s Sergi Lopez in a very similar role as a sneering Fascist bully-boy. The intriguing title refers to the brown-flour food which peasants like Andreu’s family subsist on. After a startlingly violent and disturbing opening – involving simulated but very realistic-looking cruelty to a horse, the film gradually bogs down into an overcomplicated stew of secrets, lies, myths and melodramatic revelations.

Villaronga generally handles proceedings in a bland, functional manner.

Hand-held camerawork is deployed to give proceedings a slightly arty touch. He does obtain fresh performances from his child actors, their realistic brattishness offsetting a general tendency towards tear-jerking sentimentality that’s especially noticeable in the grim final reels. Set in post-Spanish Civil War Catalonia, the film creates an atmosphere where the potential for death and hostility to erupt exists around every corner, in every situation.

From the outset you learn that no place is safe; not the family hearth, government offices, and certainly not the multitude of caves, woods, and fields where the year-old Andreu Francesc Colomer grows up. Andreu witnesses the final moments of his best friend, and the dying child gurgles the name Pitorliua, the name of a ghost said to haunt their village. His father, Farriol Roger Casamajoris accused of the murder, and must go into hiding.

The two wounded children form close ceimen, and ee forced into the grown-up world of secrets, lies, jealousies, rumors, politics, and redemption.

Ultimately Andreu is forced to make arduous, soul-rending choices about his dreams, family, and loyalties, decisions that are difficult—at best—for adults, let alone a child trying to come to terms with the world.

Andreu begins as a kind, wide-eyed innocent—sneaking bread to a consumptive, contagious inmate at a monastery, a young man who may or may not be an angel—and he believes the best in people, until little by little it is revealed to him that what his father tells him is true, that people are capable of extreme acts of evil. Nuria serves as a guide for Andreu through these treacherous waters. She is pragmatic, and uses what she has to get through and better her situation—doling out sexual favors for benefits.

It speaks well of their talent that two such young actors can carry parts with this much depth and weight, roles that would crush most adult actors into flattened, mushy little pancakes. Colomer and Comas both deliver subtle, nuanced, and at times heartbreaking performances. The characters are certainly haunted, all of them to some degree, but not by ghosts, by decisions and actions that they cannot take back, and pasts they cannot escape.

And monsters and horrors abound, but not the kind of myth and legend, these are the much more human, much more frightening variety, the ones that can actually reach out, touch you, and do you harm. As the film progresses Andreu slowly unravels the truth about his father, his mother, Nuria, Pitorliua, the twisted nature of their town and their story, and the part he is to play in everything. Based on the acclaimed novel by Emili Teixidor, the film nearly swept the Goya Awards—think the Spanish Oscars—and is making the festival rounds, screening at the Seattle International Film Festival, and will hopefully find a distributor.

Emili Teixidor: de maig

Dans les secrets d’un village catalan. Nous sommes au lendemain de la guerre civile espagnole. Comentaris del missatge Atom.


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In September , Edward Frenkel gave a series of four lectures at MSRI, ” Elementary Introduction to the Langlands Program”. The videos of the lectures. An Introduction to the Langlands Program present a broad, user-friendly introduction to the Langlands program, that is, Elementary Theory of L- Functions I. Discover Archives, a shared portal for exploring archival holdings at the University of Toronto and its federated colleges.

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References [Enhancements On Off] What’s this? MR [Art 3] J. Arthur, A trace formula for reductive groups. I, II, Duke Math. James ArthurThe introcuction formula in invariant formAnn.

MRlrogram MR [Be Ze] I. Surveys 31no. MR [Bo 2] A. MR [Bo Shaf] Z. Shafarevich, Number theoryAcademic Press, KutzkoBourbaki Seminar, Vol. MR [Cas2] W. Casselman, “GL n “, Proc. MR [Cas Fro] J. BrightonThompson Book, Washington, D.

MR [Deligne] P. MR [Deligne 2] P. II, Lecture Notes in Math. MR [De Se] P. Serre, Formes modulaires de poids 1, Ann. MR [Drin] V.

Drinfeld, Langlands conjecture for GL 2 over function fieldsProggram. Dwork, On the Artin root numberAmer. MR [Flick 1] Y. MR [Ge l] S. Gelbart, Automorphic forms on adele groupsAnn. MR [Ge2] S. Gelbart, Elliptic curves and automorphic representationsAdv. MR [Ge 3] S. Fomin, Geodesic flows on manifolds of constant negative curvatureUspekhi Mat. Nauk 7no. Piatetski-Shapiro, Representation theory and automorphic functionsSaunders, Philadelphia, MR [Ge Ka] I. France, Paris,pp.

Gelbart : An elementary introduction to the Langlands program

MR [God 2] R. Godement, Introduction aux travaux de SelbergSem. Jacquet, Zeta-functions of simple algebrasLecture Notes in Math. MR [Goldstein] L. Goldstein, Analytic number theoryPrentice-Hall, MR Kenneth I. GrossOn the evolution of noncommutative harmonic analysisAmer.

Monthly 85no. MR [Harder] G. Harder, Chevalley inhroduction over function fields and automorphic formsAnn. MR [Ho 2] R. MR [Ho 3] R. MR [Humph] J. Humphreys, Linear algebraic groupsSpringer-Verlag, MR [Jacquet 1] H. MR [Jacquet 2] H. Jacquet, Automorphic forms on GL 2.

Mathematical Sciences Research Institute

MR [J L] H. Shalika, On Euler products and the classification of automorphic representations. MR [Kaz] D. Kazhdan, Some applications of thhe Weil representationJ. MR Robert E. MR [Kudla] S.

Kudla, Relations between automorphic forms produced by theta-functionsModular Functions of One Variable. VI, Lecture Notes in Math. Langlands, Euler productsYale Univ. Press, New Haven, Conn. MR [Langlands 2] R. Langlands, Problems in the theory of automorphic formsLecture Notes in Introoduction. MR [Langlands 3] R. Langlands, L-functions and automorphic representationsProc.

LanglandsAutomorphic representations, Shimura varieties, and motives. MR [Langlands 6] R. Langlands, Shimura varieties and the Selberg trace formulaCanad. LanglandsStable conjugacy: Li, On the representations of GL 2. Lipsman, Group representationsLecture Notes in Math. MR [Mac] I.

Macdonald, Spherical functions on a group of p-adic typeRamanujan Inst. MR George W. MackeyHarmonic analysis as the exploitation of symmetry—a historical surveyBull. Moy, Local constants and the tame Langlands correspondenceThesis, Univ.

MR intrpduction A. MR [Os Wa] M. Piatetski-Shapiro, L-functions for GSp 4tge, Piatetski-Shapiro, Tate theory for reductive groups and distinguished representationsProc. PlatonovArithmetic theory of algebraic groupsUspekhi Mat.

Nauk 37no. SchiffmannAutomorphic forms constructed from the Weil representation: Monodromiefiltration und verschwindende Zyklen in ungleicher CharakteristikInvent. MR [Rib] K. MR [Rob l] A.

MR [Rob 2] A. MR [Rob 3]A. Robert, Lectures on automorphic formsQueens Univ. MR [Saito] H. Saito, Automorphic forms and algebraic extensions of number fieldsLectures in Math. MR [Sa Sh] Prograk. Shalika, Characters of the discrete series of representations of SL 2 over a local fieldProc. MR [Selberg] A. MR [Serre] J. Shalika, Some conjectures in class field theoryProc. MR [ShaTan] J. Tanaka, On an explicit construction of a certain class of automorphic formsElemenatry.


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Anton chejov el jardin de los cerezos analysis essay

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El Jardin de los Cerezos (Spanish Edition): Anton Chejov: : Books

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In some books of supplication, this supplication is referred to as Du’a Alqamah named after the companion of Imam as-Sadiq, peace be upon him, Alqamah. A site about ziaraat of Muslim religious sites with details, pictures, nohas, majalis and qasidas. DUA E ALQAMA PDF – Mafateh Jinan with Urdu Translation(complete pg).pdf. Ziaraat e Nahiyaa. Dua e Kumail. Sahifa e Kamila – Mufti Jaffar.

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O He who gives answer to the cries of the persecuted! O He who pulls out the grief-stricken from agony and anguish! Dka He who comes to help those who shed tears duaa helplessness! O he who brings relief to those who cry for help!

O He who is close by, nearer than my jugular vein! O He who makes peace between heart and mind; O He whom people search in the highest and noblest perspectives; in true and evident distinctions!

O He who is Beneficent and Merciful in His authority! O He who knows what the furtive eyes betrays and what the secretive hearts conceal! O He whom do not deceive those who do everything in secret! O He whom intermingled voices of the countless callers supplicants do not stop from giving answer to each and every one! O He whom wants and needs of the infinite needy do not put in confusion for attending to one and all separately! O he whom clamorous determined pleading of petitioners do not upset!

O He who reaches and takes hold uda everything that tries to escape! O He who keeps together and brings into harmony people who know and understand! O He who examines the souls when they present themselves before Him after death! O he who, each day, has new distinct glory!

Du’a After Ziyarat ‘Ashura – Du’a Alqamah

O Fulfiller of wants and needs! O He who gives confront and respite in distress! O He who liberally satisfies those who solicit His favours! O He who stands by and follow close upon those who humble and fervently call on Him! O He who effectively support those who make sincere efforts! O He who is equal to and can do anything instead of another in the matters concerning all things; and nothing, in the heavens and the earth, can be out of the reach of or is free from His hold.

I beseech Thee in the name of Muhammad, the last Prophet, and Ali, a,qama commander of the faithfuls, in the name of Fatimah, the daughter of Thy Prophet, and in the name of Hasan and Husayn. I direct myself towards Thee, through them, in my address, through them I try to get a hearing, through them I put forward my case to get Thy favours, in their names I make a request to Thee. Bound to Thee by oath, living a life according to Thy commands, I carry out my pledge by every means, in the name of the love and devotion Thou has for them, and the influence and status they enjoy in every dimension of Alaqma will, the superior most pre-eminence in wisdom and character Thou bestowed upon them to transcend above everything in the whole universe, in the name of Thy name Thou revealed to them in trust, on account of which Thou chose them in preference over everything found in the heavens and the earths, through which Thou built their syndrome, developed to perfection their surpassing excellence in knowledge, learning and deeds, out of all the rest of the people, till their completeness surpassed the total achievement of d the people put together.

I request Thee to send blessings on Muhammad and on the children of Muhammad; and duw into the causes of my sorrows, anxieties, burdens, and do away alqqama them, let me be equal to, sufficiently instructed, while dealing with my important enterprises and efforts, and carry out and fulfil my obligations, set me free from the clutches of poverty and from the pangs of hunger, let me have enough to live upon, free from the need to turn to others. O my Allah put an end to the intentions of him who desires to destroy me, outwit him who makes plans, keep off from me his deceit and intrigue, his hostility and fancy, keep me aloof, refusing to have anything to do with him, in whatever manner, on any occasion, as Thou wills.

O my Allah divert his attention from me and involve him in his own over wlqama anxieties which Thou will not cut down, in misfortune which Thou will not make easy to deal with, in waywardness from which Thou will not lead him back on the right path, in spiritless laziness which Thou will never change into fruitful activity, infamy and disgrace from which Thou will not allow him to rise to the surface, in broken fortune which Thou will not let get set.

O my Allah let contemptible disgrace stick like a leech on the forehead between his two eyes, expose him to emptiness in every effort he makes, let wicked inclination, distraction and inactivity cut deep into his body and soul, in order that Thou diverts his attention from, me, absorbed in his own w that do not free him to employ himself at another, make him think no more of me as he has willfully neglected and forgotten Thee, take away from me alqamma throw overboard his attention, interest, communication, influence, support, and perverted thinking every evil he commits or draws it on himself, let everything he does go waste, defective alsama incomplete, and do not give any r so that he is kept fully preoccupied and gets no time to pay attention to me or think of me.

Give enough to me, O He who effectively and completely gives satisfaction. Thou dispels the clouds of sorrows, no one else, save Thee can free the grief-stricken from cares.

Thou comes to help, no one else, except Thee, can do a favour when called for help. Thou art near, ready to avert the danger, no one else, save Thee, is close enough to stand by in the hour of trouble. Comes to grief he who relies upon his own friends instead of Thee; or looks for his own supporters in place of Thee; frightened, cries for help having some one else other than Thee in mind; terrorized, runs away from the danger to a place of escape outside of Thy guaranty, and takes refuge in an asylum not watched over by Thee; and tries to bring himself to a place of safety through the help of created beings, excluding Thee, the Creator.

Therefore, Thou art my trust, my hope, my retreat, my refuge, my security, unto which one can run for safety, for this reason I call for thy help, and seek Thy support to carry out my affairs easily and successfully, through Muhammad and the children of Muhammad I present myself before Thee, try to draw Thy attention and ask for salvation.

So I beseech Thee, O Allah! Because all praise is for Thee aloneand also prostration in thankfulness, thou alone listens to complaints, Thou alone is called upon for help.

In the name of Muhammad and the children of Muhammad to send blessings on Muhammad and on the children of Muhammad, to put to flight the sorrows, the anxieties, the burdens, now surrounding me from all sides, just as Thou made Thy Prophet free of his sorrows, anxieties and burden, and saved him from the terror of his enemies, in such manner as Thou made him to do so, let me also do the same, let me be free of care as Thou gave him joy, heart and confidence, let me have enough and be contended as Thou gave him sufficiently.

Send away from me the terror that frightens me, the encumbrance that I find burdensome, the anxieties that wear me down, freeing me from their impact. Make me use my means freely to carry out and complete my business or employment, and do anything requisite instead of another, which may make me anxious about my affairs in this world or the hereafter. As long as I am alive and the days and nights follow each other I invoke Allah to send blessings on you forever and ever.

Dua Alqamah and Ziarat e Ashura – Ahlyul Bayt

May Allah not make this pledge of physical and spiritual close association with you both the last fulfilment, and may Allah not separate me and you both from one another. O my Allah let me have a meaningful existence as Muhammad his descendants had lived, and die as they departed from this world, take to and carry out completely their creed; and raise me for the last judgement along with the people dedicated to them, and do not cut us in two groupseven for the flash of an eyelid, ever, either in this world or in the life of the hereafter.

I come nearer to you both to establish close physical and spiritual relationship, and thereby seek nearness to Allah, my lord Nourishes and your lord Nourisher, through you I direct myself towards Him, and request you to speak in favour of my immediate at hand needs and wants I have put before Allah. So please speak well of me because, of course, with Allah your thoughtful judgement is highly credible, your disposition enjoys conclusive preference, your action keeps step with precise acumen, and a sure means of approach to gain His favour.

I direct myself to bring myself over to that which Allah wills and commands. I commit my case to Allah, anything neglected or taking place behind my back shall be taken care of Allah, I entrust Allah with the management of my affairs, and say: Allah is sufficient and enough, Allah pays attention to whoso makes a request to Him, there is nothing for me in wlqama which is on the other side in opposition of Allah, and you, O my leaders, ultimately that which allqama lord Nourisher wills takes place, and happens not that which He wills not.

There is no power and no might save in Allah. Unto you both I have come alqamma love and affection, motivated under Divine incentive.

May Allah not make my this pledge of physical and spiritual close association with you both the last fulfilment.


I take advantage O my leader, O Ameerul Moomineen, O my friend to whom I have surrendered, body and soul, and you O Abaa Abillah, O my leader, and pay respects with love and affection, nonstop, till do not carry embracing days and nights, closely embracing it, to you, if Allah so wills, without ever being separated, in your names I beseech Him, that He wills it and does it because verily it is He who alone is praised, and he brings about beautiful things.

O my leaders I long for you r love to be in your company though the worldly people looked at it with indifference and kept aloof from your friendly intercourse. May not Allah let me fall short of in that which I hope for and in that which I look long and attentively to establish everlasting reunion with you. Verily He alqxma near and gives positive answer to prayers.

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Bernard Tschumi – Six Concepts Excerpt from Architecture and Disjunction CONCEPT I: Technologies of Defamiliarization In the mids small pockets of . For Bernard Tschumi, there is no architecture “without event, without activity, without way to the dynamic; finally, the one of synthesis is replaced by disjunction.

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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Technologies of Defamiliarization In the mids small pockets of resistance began to form as architects in various parts of the world — England, Austria, the United States, Japan for the most part, in advanced postindustrial cultures — started to take advantage of this condition of fragmentation and superficiality and to turn it against itself.

If the prevalent ideology was one of familiarity — familiarity with known images, derived from s modernism or eighteenth century classicism — maybe one’s role was to defamiliarize. If the new, mediated world echoed and reinforced our dismantled reality, maybe, just maybe, one should archittecture advantage of such dismantling, celebrate fragmentation by celebrating the culture of differences, by accelerating and intensifying the loss of certainty, of center, of history.

If the design of windows only reflects the superficiality of the skin’s decoration, we might very well start to look for a way to do without windows. If the design of pillars reflects the conventionality of a supporting frame, maybe we might get rid of pillars altogether. Although the architects concerned might not profess an inclination towards the exploration of new technologies, such work usually took advantage of contemporary technological developments.

Interestingly, the specific technologies — air-conditioning or the construction of lightweight structures or computer modes of calculation — have yet to be theorized in architectural culture. I stress this because other technological advances, such as the invention of the elevator or the nineteenth century development of steel construction, have been the subject of countless studies by historians, but very little such work exists in terms of contemporary technologies because these technologies do not necessarily produce historical forms.

I take this detour through technology because technology is inextricably linked to our contemporary condition: This shock factor was what allowed an image to stand out: The experience of such anxiety was an experience of defamiliarization, of un-zu-hause-sein, of unheimlichkeit, of the uncanny. In many ways, the esthetic experience, according to Benjamin, consisted of keeping defamiliarization alive, as contrasted to disjunctiion opposite — familiarization, security, geborgenheit.

I would like to point out that Benjamin’s analysis corresponds exactly to the historical and philosophical dilemma of architecture.

The general public will almost always stand behind the traditionalists. In the public eye, architecture is about comfort, about shelter, about bricks and mortar. However, architceture those for whom architecture in not necessarily about comfort and geborgenheitbut is also about advancing society and its development, the device of shock may be an indispensable tool. Cities like New York, despite — or maybe because of — its homeless and two thousand murders a year become the post-industrial equivalent of Georg Simmel’s preindustrial grosstadt that so fascinated and horrified Benjamin.

Architecture in the megalopolis may be more about finding unfamiliar solutions to problems than about the quieting, comforting solutions of the establishment community. Recently, we have seen important new research on cities in which the fragmentation and dislocation produced by the scaleless juxtaposition of highways, tshumi centers, high-rise buildings, and small houses is seen as a positive sign of the vitality of urban culture.

As opposed to nostalgic attempts to restore an impossible continuity of streets and plazas, this research implies making an event out of urban shock, intensifying and accelerating urban experience through clash and disjunction.

Let us return to the media. In our era of reproduction, we have seen how the conventional construction techniques of frame and skin corresponded to the superficiality and precariousness disjunctioh media culture, and how a architectre expansion of change was necessary to satisfy the often banal needs of the media.

We have also seen that to endorse this logic means that bernarr work is interchangeable with any other, just as we accelerate the shedding of the skin of a dormitory and replace it with another. We have also seen that the shock goes against the nostalgia of permanence or authority, whether it is in culture in general or architecture in particular.

Over fifty years after the publication of Benjamin’s text, we may have to say that shock is still all we have left to communicate in a time of generalized information.

In a mediatized world, this relentless need for change disjunctoin not necessarily to be understood as negative. The increase in change and superficiality also means a weakening of architecture as a form of domination, power, and authority, as it historically has been in the last six thousand years. Since the Renaissance, architectural theory has always distinguished between structure and ornament, and has set forth the hierarchy between them.

Bernard Tschumi

To quote Leon Battista Alberti: But what does this hierarchy mean today, when the structure often remains the same — an endlessly repetitive and neutralized grid? In the majority of construction in this country today, structural practice is rigorously similar in concept: As noted earlier, the decision whether to construct the frame from any of these materials is often left to the engineers and economists rather than to the architect.

The architect is not meant to question structure. The structure must stand firm. After all, what would happen to insurance premiums and to reputations if the building collapsed? The result is too often a refusal to question structure. The structure must be stable, otherwise the edifice collapses — the edifice, that is, both the building and the entire edifice of thought.

For in comparison to science or philosophy, architecture rarely questions its foundations. Social critics regularly question the image, yet rarely question the apparatus, the frame.

Still, for over a century, and especially in the past twenty years, we have seen the beginning of such questioning. Contemporary philosophy has touched upon this relationship between frame and image — here the frame is seen as the structure, the armature, and the image as the ornament. Jacques Derrida’s Parergon turns such questioning between frame and image into a theme.

Superimposition This questioning of structure leads to a particular side of contemporary architectural debate, namely deconstruction. From the beginning, the polemics of deconstruction, together with much of post-structuralist thought, interested a small number of architects because it seemed to question the very principles of geborgenheit that the postmodernist mainstream was trying to promote.

After all, deconstruction is anti-form, anti-hierarchy, anti-structure, the opposite of all that architecture stands for.

As years went by, the multiple interpretations that multiple architects gave to deconstruction became more multiple than deconstruction’s theory of multiple readings could ever have hoped. For one architect it had tschmi do with dissimulation, for another, with fragmentation; for yet another, with displacement. Again, to quote Nietzsche: Any interest in post-structuralist thought and deconstruction stemmed from the fact that they challenged the idea of a single unified set of images, the idea of certainty, and of course, the idea of an identifiable language.

Theoretical architects — as they were called — wanted to confront the binary oppostions of traditional architecture: Superimposition became a key device. This can be seen in my own work. In The Manhattan Transcripts or The Screenplaysthe devices used in the first episodes were borrowed from film theory and the nouveau roman.

Architecture and Disjunction by Bernard Tschumi

In the Transcripts the distinction between structure or frameform or spaceevent or functionbody or movementand fiction or narrative was systematically blurred through superimposition, collision, distortion, fragmentation, and so forth.

We find superimposition used quite remarkably in Peter Eisenman’s work, where the overlays for his Romeo and Juliet project pushed literary and philosophical parallels to extremes. Much of this work benefited from the environment of the universities and the art scene — its galleries and publications — where the crossover among different fields allowed architects to blur the distinctions between genres, constantly questioning the discipline of architecture and its hierarchies of form.

Yet if I was to examine both my own work of this time and that of my colleagues, I would say that both grew out of a critique of architecture, of the nature of architecture.

It dismantled concepts and became a remarkable conceptual tool, but it could not address the one thing stchumi makes the work of architects ultimately different from the work of philosophers: Just as there is a logic of words or of drawings, there is a logic of materials, and they are not the same.

And however much they are subverted, something ultimately resists. Ceci n’est pas une pipe.

Bernard Tschumi Architects

A word is not a concrete block. The concept of dog does not bark. Sheetrock columns that do not touch the ground are not structural, they are ornament. Yes, fiction and narrative fascinated many architects, perhaps because, our enemies might say, we knew more about books than about buildings.

Although both stemmed from early interests in linguistics and semiology, the first group saw fiction and narrative as part of the realm of metaphors, of a new architecture parlante, of form, while the second group saw fiction and scenarios as analogues for programs and arcnitecture. I would like to concentrate on that second view. Rather than manipulating the formal properties of architecture, we might look into what really happens inside buildings and cities: Roland Barthes’ Structural Analysis of Narratives was fascinating in this respect, for it could be directly transposed both in spatial and programmatic sequence.

The same could be said of much of Sergei Eisenstein’s theory of archiyecture montage. Crossprogramming Architecture has always been as much about the event that takes place in a space as about the space itself.

The Columbia University Rotunda has been a library, it has been used as a banquet hall, it is often the site of university lectures; someday it could fulfill the needs for an athletic facility at the University. What a wonderful swimming pool the Rotunda would be! You may think I’m being facetious, but in today’s world where railway stations become museums and churches become arcjitecture, a point is being made: Function does not follow form, form does not follow function — or fiction for that matter — however, they certainly interact.

Diving into this great blue Rotonda pool — a part of the shock. If shock can no longer be disjucntion by the succession and juxtaposition of disiunction and lobbies, maybe it can be produced by the juxtaposition of events that take place behind these facades in these spaces.

If architecture is both concept and experience, space and use, structure and superficial image — non-hierarchically — then architecture should cease to separate these categories and instead merge them into unprecedented combinations of programs and spaces.

The Turning Point My own work in the s constantly reiterated that there was no architecture without event, no architecture without action, without activities, without functions. Architecture was seen as the combination of spaces, events, and movements without any hierarchy or precedence among these concepts. Hence, in works like The Manhattan Transcripts, the xrchitecture of architecture could not tsschumi form or walls, but had to be the combination of heterogeneous and incompatible terms.

Erecting a barricade function in a Paris street form is not bernqrd equivalent to being a flaneur function in that same street form. Dining function in the Rotunda form is not quite equivalent to reading or swimming in it.

Here all hierarchical relationships between form and function cease to exist. This unlikely combination of events and spaces was charged with subversive capabilities, for it challenged both the function disjunctoon the space.

Such confrontation parallels the Surrealists’ meeting of a sewing machine and an umbrella on a dissecting table, or bernar to us, Rem Koolhaas’s description of the Downtown Athletic Club: Regardless of whether they are the result of chance combinations, or bernare due to tschuji pressure of ever-rising land prices, such non-causal relationships between form and function, or space and action go beyond poetic confrontations of unlikely bedfellows.

Just as important is the spatialization that goes with the event. Such a concept is quite different from the project of the modern movement, which sought the affirmation of certainties in a unified utopia as opposed to our current questioning of multiple, fragmented, dislocated terrains.

I would like to associate it with the notion of shock, a shock that in order to be effective in our mediated culture, in our culture of images, must go beyond Walter Benjamin’s definition and combine the idea of function or action with that of image. Indeed, architecture finds itself in a diskunction situation: Philosophers can write, mathematicians can develop virtual spaces, but architects are the only ones who are the prisoners of that hybrid art, where the image hardly ever exists without a combined activity.

It is my contention that far from being a field suffering from the incapability of questioning its structures and foundations, it is the field where the greatest discoveries will take place in the next century. The very heterogeneity of the definition of architecture — space, action, and movement — makes it into that event, that place of shock, or that place of the invention of acrhitecture.

The event is the place where the rethinking and reformulation of the different elements hschumi architecture, many of which have resulted in or added to contemporary social inequities, may lead to their solution. By definition, it is the place of the combination of differences. This will not happen by imitating the past and eighteenth century ornaments.


This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the number 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D on Rubber. ASTM D is an abrasion method used for coated materials and is cited for classification testing by the ANSI standard. ASTM D Abrasion resistance tests are intended to measure the wear resistance properties of a material. This may be correlated to expected end use.

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The below links summarize popular Taber test methods and are sorted by application e.

This commercial item description covers catalyzed epoxy system of marking inks for metallic or other non-porous surfaces and printed wiring boards. This method covers the selection criteria for hand protection systems including chemical permeation, puncture resistance, and abrasion resistance. The purpose of this test is to determine whether the plastic has a certain minimum resistance to abrasion.

The asmt of this test is to determine whether safety glass has a certain minimum resistance to abrasion. The purpose of this test is to provide a general means to produce controlled abrasion on a card surface. This standard asm out a method for the determination of the abrasion resistance of textile fabrics applicable to all textile fabrics including coated and laminated fabrics, a method for wet testing is also specified. This Standard sets out a method for determining the abrasion resistance of a paint coating or other finishes, such as anodizing, electroplating, paper products, rubbers, plastics, textiles, glass and concrete.

This standard specifies a method for determining the resistance to surface abrasion of decorative surfaces by using the Taber abrader.

DIN and Taber 5155 Abrasion

It is applicable to all low qstm overlaid particleboards and medium density fibreboards MDF’s. This specification describes the required properties and test methods for a cold liquid-applied elastomeric membrane for waterproofing building decks not subject to hydrostatic pressure.

The specification applies only to a membrane system that has an integral wearing surface. This test methods covers the establishment of an d3839 of abrasion resistance by determination of loss of weight resulting from abrasion of dimension stone. This guide is intended to assist in establishing procedures for determining the relative resistance of treated or untreated mortar surfaces. This test method describes a procedure for estimating the resistance of Transparent Plastics to Surface Abrasion.

This guide covers the selection and use of procedures for testing traffic paints in the laboratory and in the field. This test method covers the determination of the resistance to abrasion of fabrics coated with rubber or plastics. These practices cover the selection and use of procedures for testing polymeric powders and powder coatings.

This guide covers the selection and use of test methods for high-performance interior architectural wall coatings HIPAC which differ form more conventional coatings in that they are tougher, more stain-resistance, more abrasion-resistant and, ordinarily, designed to be applied to wall surfaces of steel, masonry, and plaster or gypsum wallboard.

This guide covers procedures for testing coil coatings.

Taber Abrasion ASTM D D D

The test methods included are listed in Table 1. Where more than one test method is listed for the same characteristic, no attempt is made to indicate superiority of one method over another. This guide covers the determination of the abrasion resistance of textile fabrics using the rotary platform, double head tester RPDH.

This test method covers the determination of the resistance of organic coatings to abrasion produced by the Taber Abraser on coatings applied to a plane, rigid surface, such as a metal panel. This test method covers the determination of the loss of pile, specifically pile pull out, due to abrasion.

This guide covers the selection and use of procedures for testing water-reducible coatings, both pigmented and clear, utilizing synthetic lattices, synthetic resin emulsions, or water-reducible alkyds. This guide provides a common basis on which protective coatings for the surfaces of light water-moderated nuclear power generating facilities may be qualified and selected by reproducible evaluation tests. This guide covers the selection and use of procedures for testing solvent-borne coatings to be used on exterior, interior or both types of surfaces.

This guide covers the selection and use of procedures for testing water-borne coatings to be used on exterior, interior or both types of surfaces. Two test methods are included. Test Method A uses a device that contains an abrasive wheel. Test Method B uses a device that contains a wheel that has been fitted with abrasive paper. Either method can be used to evaluate the dry abrasion mar resistance of coatings applied to planar, rigid surfaces.

Taber Test Methods: Taber Abraser (Abrader) – Taber Industries

This test method covers the determination of the abrasion resistance of leather using the rotary platform, double-head tester RPDH. This specification covers minimum material performance and laboratory test procedures for non-reinforced liquid coating encapsulation products single or multiple-coat systems for leaded paint in buildings. This specification covers requirements for the compound and physical characteristics of rubber floor tile. This test method describes a procedure for determining the amount of image abraded from the surface of a document.

This test method may be used to evaluate the abrasion resistance of images produced by business imaging products, including nonimpact printers, thermal transfer printers, and copiers. This test method quantifies the abrasion resistance of metallic coatings produced by thermal spray processes on flat metallic surfaces. C3389 is intended as a means of characterizing coatings used on surgical implants.

This specification covers the requirements for single use saline inflatable, smooth and textured silicone shell implantable v3389 prostheses, intended for use in surgical reconstruction, augmentation, or replacement of the breast.

This specification covers metallic stemmed femoral prosthesis used to replace the natural hip joint by means of hemi-arthroplasty or total hip surgical procedures. Xstm guide covers and is intended to assist in establishing procedures for conducting wear tests of rigid or flexible materials utilizing the rotary platform abraser.

The entrance surface of the disc should have sufficient scratch resistance, which may be improved by a protective coating. This Specification provides x3389 requirements and procedures for producing a hard oxide coating on aluminum alloys. This coating provides excellent 3d389 resistance for sliding d3398 applications, corrosion resistance, and electrical insulation. Corrosion resistance can be increased by sealing the coating, but abrasion resistance is decreased.

This part of ISO specifies a method for determining the resistance to abrasion of a dried film of paint, varnish or related product, using abrasive paper attached to wheels and abrading by making a rotary movement. This part of ISO specifies a method for determining the resistance to abrasion of a dried film of paint, varnish or related product, using abrasive rubber wheels and abrading by making a rotary movement.

Screed, bases and in situ floorings. Polymer modified cementitious leveling screeds and wearing screeds. Specifies requirements for safety glass for installation as windscreens, other windows, or as partitions in motor vehicles and trailers. This document describes a method for the determination of the wear resistance of a non-filled synthetic turf surface using an abrasive wheel under laboratory conditions.

It is applicable to non-filled synthetic turf with a pile height greater than 15mm. To determine the abrasion resistance of chemical coated fabrics and films using a rotary platform double head tester. This document sets forth recommended minimum performance standards for vinyl and other polymeric films, plain and printed, which are used as in-ground swimming pool liners.

This specification covers a catalyzed epoxy system of marking inks for metallic or other non-porous surfaces. This commercial item description covers the requirements for a structural fireman’s coverall to be used by Navy damage control fire fighters.

This procedure covers the determination of the resistance of coatings to abrasion using the Taber Abraser. This Appendix specifies a method of measuring the ability of the surfaces of decorative laminated sheets to maintain their original design or colour under abrasive wear.

This process standard specifies procedures and requirements for hard anodizing aluminum alloys. It shall be used when specified on the Engineering drawing. This standard specifies the functional requirements and test methods for domestic kitchen sinks, used in residential domestic houses, guest houses and similar premises. This standard does not specify aesthetic and dimensional requirements.

It does not apply to industrial kitchen sinks. All drawings are examples only; other forms are permissible. Laminate floor coverings – Elements with a surface layer based on amnioplastic thermosetting resins – Specifications, requirements and test methods. This annex specifies the method for measuring abrasion resistance and consequently determining the abrasion class of laminate floor covering elements. The test described measures the ability of the surface layer to resist abrasive wear-through.

Wood flooring – Test methods to determine elasticity and resistance to wear and impact resistance. This document specifies two alternative test methods to determine the resistance to wear of lacquered wood floorings and one method to test the elasticity of the lacquer. This test measures the ability of the decorative surface of melamine surfaces boards to resist abrasive wear-through by rotating a specimen in contact with cylindrical wheels covered with abrasive paper.

The number of revolutions of the specimen required to cause a defined degrees of abrasion is used as measures of resistance to abrasion. This European Standard specifies a method of determining abrasion resistance of automotive leather. Vitreous and Porcelain Enamels- Characteristics of the enamel coatings applied to steel panels intended for architecture. This European Standard specifies the functional requirements and test methods for wash basins for domestic purposes.

Vitreous and Porcelain Enamels – Enamel coatings applied to steel for writing surfaces- Specifications. This European Standard specifies requirements for surfaces for indoor facilities for multi-sports use. Not applicable to indoor tennis halls.

The test measures the ability of the decorative surface of the sheet under test to resist abrasive wear-through to the sub-layer.

Resilient Floor Coverings-Tiles of agglomerated composition cork with polyvinyl chloride wear layer-Specification. This European standard specifies the characteristics of agglomerated cork with a wear layer based upon polyvinyl chloride and modification thereof.

This European Standard describes the Frick-Taber method for determining the wear resistance of the wear layer of polyvinyl chloride floor coverings under laboratory conditions.

The test method is applicable to floor coverings with smooth surfaces. It can be used to determine the wear resistance of surfaces against abrasion and particularly for ranking different wear layer types within one type of product. This guidance document represents the agency’s current thinking on r3389 testing results that will enable FDA to reconsider the requirement for postmarket surveillance of plasma sprayed hip prostheses.

This method is intended for determining the abrasion resistance of cloths in terms of percent change in breaking strength, or breaking strength after a given period of abrasion, or the number of abrasion cycles required to produce a specified state of destruction. It is used to evaluate cloth durability. This specification covers d33389 requirements for photosensitive anodized aluminum sheets and foils.

For purposes of this specification, foils as referred to in this specification is defined as material 0. Description of a method that measures the ability of a coated surface to resist abrasive wear-through to the underlying substrate by assessing the resistance to liquid paraffin fat in the abraded area. The method is used on coated wood, foiled and laminated substrates in applications where high surface resistance is required. This asrm is designed to evaluate the resistance of solder mask or conformally surfaces to rubbing abrasion.

This International Standard specifies requirements for hard anodic oxidation coatings on aluminum and its alloys, including test methods. Determination of whether the plastic, safety glazing material has a certain minimum resistance to abrasion at ambient temperature under dry or wet car wash conditions.

The test measures the ability of a decorative surface of the sheet under test to resist abrasive wear through to the sub-layer. This International Standard specifies the method for measuring abrasion of laminate floor covering elements. This International Standard specifies mechanical test methods relating to the safety requirements for all safety glazing materials in a road vehicle, whatever the type of glass or other material of which they are composed.

This part of ISO describes a method of assessing the abrasive wear resistance of coated fabrics.